Medsurg 120 neuro lecture notes

Frequently occurs with head trauma. Prognosis is usually very poor when a patient has a hemorrhage. Concussion a sudden transient mechanical head injury with disruption of neural activity and a change of LOC.

Occipital bruising resulting in blindness, visual field defects, rare appearance of ataxia. Oval shaped bruise behind the ears. Exposure of brain to contaminants through frontal air sinus. Types of head injuries Scalp Lacerations: Note the amount, color and appearance because both tests can give false positive results.

Minor head injury Signs: Most minor of the head traumas. To perform this test, the nurse allows the leaking fluid to drip on a white pad 4 X 3 or towel and observes the drainage. The location of the fracture alters the presentation of the clinical signs and symptoms.

Minor head injury Minor head trauma: CSF or brain otorrhea, bulging of tympanic membrane caused be CSF or blood, battle sign, tinnitus or hearing difficulty, facial paralysis, vertigo. Hemorrhage, hematoma formation, seizures, and cerebral edema.

Within a few minutes the blood moves to the center and a yellowish ring encircles the blood is CSF is present. Usually occurs at the site of the fracture. Very important to give patient and families instructions of all the above so they can seek help if needed.

Brief LOC, amnesia of incidentand headache. There are several ways to describe skull fractures: Includes an alteration in consciousness. Tissue damage is severe and surgical repair of the laceration is impossible because of the texture of the brain tissue.

Seizures are a common complication of brain contusion. Although a concussion is generally considered benign and usually resolves spontaneously, the symptoms may be beginning signs of a more serious problem.

A contusion develops area of necrosis, infarction, hemorrhage and edema. Because your scalp contains many blood vessels with poor constructive abilities, most scalp lacerations are associated with profuse bleeding. Bleeding at the site is usually minimal and the blood is reabsorbed slowly.

Head Trauma Head injury includes any trauma to scalp, skull or brain. The type and severity of a skull fracture depends on the velocity, momentum, the direction of injuring agent, and the site of impact.

IF blood is present however, testing for the presence of glucose is unreliable because blood contains glucose. Deafness, CSF or brain otorrhea, facial paralysis, loss of taste; battle sign. Involve actual tearing of the brain tissue and occur frequently in association with depressed and compound fractures and penetrating injuries.

Med/Surg II

Major head trauma Major Head Trauma: Includes contusions bruising of the brain tissue within a focal area that maintains the integrity of the pia mater and arachnoid layers and lacerations.

The patient may not loss total consciousness with this injury. If the unconsciousness lasted less than 5 minutes the patient is usually sent home with instructions of when to notify MD.

This usually confirms that the fracture has transverse the dura. Brain injuries are categorized as being minor or major. CSF gives a positive reading for glucose.Student Nursing Study Blog.

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